Young movements and old manners

young people go down to the streets and demonstrateClimate change, the rise of violent extremism and widespread sexism, the crisis of modern capitalism, are some of today’s society issues, which pushed especially young people to go down to the streets and demonstrate. We’ve seen in the past few years thousands of new movements blossom around the globe, putting pressure on the dominant political agenda.

2nd June 2015, in Buenos Aires and other 120 cities across the country, a large number of people took the streets against women working and social condition in South America, starting from the episode of Susana Chavez – a Mexican poet victim of feminicide – and the strict policies adopted by Argentinian President Macri towards women. The protest spread rapidly throughout Latin America, Mexico, Peru, Chile, Uruguay and the world itself. The phenomenon of Ni una Menos is cross-sectional but involves especially young people willing to make them hear their voices, everywhere. Many similar movements grew up, as in Italy, a country that saw its young population very active in the last few years.

The Italian situation is interesting in two directions: both a renewed need to demonstrate to influence the political agenda and the nervous answers to these movements by politicians who have contrary opinions. One main example is Matteo Salvini’s behaviour towards his young opponents. On March, Italian Interior Minister published on his social accounts the picture of Viola Pacilli, a 22 years old girl who attended a demonstration with a protest sign against fascism and Salvini’s controversial propaganda. Indeed, publishing her face without any kind of sensible reason (and at the boundaries of legality) meant exposing her to a direct shaming rack from Salvini’s supporters.

The case just mentioned unfortunately is not isolated, on the contrary, it is a frequent practice. In Hungary, for instance, Blanka Nagy, a high school student, was overwhelmed by tough insults from governmental sources, especially the press loyal to president Orbán. We could mention hundreds of more examples, and it is clearly a symptom of the problem.

This is part of a common strategy to far-right representatives which consists in finding an “enemy” against whom their supporters can pour out anger and frustration. It is a classic political concept, the friend/enemy dichotomy – which considers political actions and motives lead by the distinction in friends and enemies – theorised by Carl Schmitt (no coincidence an important academic even during the Nazi period). Anyway, with social networks and internet these techniques are becoming more invasive and “public”, with a new destructive potential: take the Dreyfus Affair, a political scandal occurred in late 19th century France, which symbolises a prelude to the decisive antisemitism and racism which eventually lead to World War II tragedy. Then, try to imagine it nowadays: do you find any similarities? Migrants seen as a terrifying threat, terrorist attacks turned into Islamophobia, Climate change simply reduced to a “hoax”, poor people merely considered humans, except when there is the need for votes. History is life’s teacher.

However, what is often depicted as a generation without values, politically indifferent and less valid than the previous ones, represents instead the real voice that calls for a radical change in the current socio-economic and political system. Greta Thunberg is just the last example of how much the “weak” can do, because the people who pursue political strategies as described before are the same who would call a girl like Greta a “weak”, unable to make any substantial change. Instead, she – as many others – embodies a strong answer to the rising politics of hate.

(written by Claudio Antonio De Angelis)

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Real vs False information; Fake News

Summary of meetings with 10th graders, Hof Hasharon High School, Israel. First meeting: 20.1.2019. Second meeting: 3.2.2019. 22 students participated: 7 girls and 15 boys.

First meeting:

The issue is problematic due to the multiplicity of sources of information, especially in social networks. Some participants noted that in many cases the problem is not necessarily false information but information that is only partially true, or biased.

Some students think they have the ability to distinguish between true and false info, and some of them say they do not have such ability. Some participants said that they have the ability to distinguish between false and real information only in subjects known to them thanks to personal experience. One participant said that in his opinion, this is the only way to distinguish – even though not everyone can personally experience everything.

Therefore, another participant recommended that one should rely on the knowledge and personal experience of others.

Some participants said that the problem also exists in non-digital media (printed newspapers or television), and that it is not advisable to rely on journalists. They believe that most information in the media (any type of media) is either biased or only partially true.

With regard to the example of people avoiding vaccines due to the distribution of false information, one participant noted that there is also a positive aspect: this phenomenon may encourage the development of vaccines with fewer side effects.

Second meeting:

Participants were asked to express their opinion on the expected situation in 10 years. To this end, three alternative scenarios were presented for the year 2029:

1. Fake news are dominant. The majority of news is distorted, you cannot trust any source on the net.

2. Reliability of information on the Internet is guaranteed by new technologies (e.g. artificial intelligence) and other means.

3. People who were born and matured with the Internet know very well how to distinguish between real and false information.

Most students think that Scenario 1 is too extreme. They think that in the future a lot of information will be false, but not all of it. The majority may be false, but it is more likely to be about half – half.

Some students believe that the situation will be quite similar to the present situation.

Some students tend to agree, in part, with Scenario 2. They think reliability will increase, but it is not certain that reliability will really be guaranteed. It is possible that for a significant part of the news, perhaps for most of them, reliability will be indeed guaranteed by new technologies.

One participant believed there will be more trust in information thanks to technology, but not only because of technologies. The change for the better will also happen because more and more people will want to be able to check and verify.

One participant mentioned Wikipedia as a possible model for improving reliability. On Wikipedia all false things are filtered and corrected within a short time. It is possible to develop a kind of correction mechanism for news items.

Some participants think it is more likely that in the future there will be a combination of Scenarios 2 and 3. That is, there will be many more experienced people who can distinguish between real and false information, and also the new technologies will help to increase reliability. Overall, the ability to distinguish real information from false information will improve, mainly through cumulative experience. But it will never reach 100%.

Regarding Scenario 3, one of the students commented (contrary to the views expressed in meetings with other groups) that actually adults today have more experience than young people and can better distinguish between false and real information.

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Terror and Peace

Terör, ülkemizde tarihin her döneminde meydana gelen şiddet olayıdır. Ülkemizin neredeyse her bölgesinde meydana gelen bu olaylar, tüm vatandaşlarımızı büyük hüzne ve sıkıntıya uğratmaktadır. Aynı zamanda hem psikolojik hem de fiziksel yönden bizleri etkileyen bu şiddet olayının kaynakları, nedenleri ve çözümüne ilişkin toplumsal algıyı anlamak için bu çalışmayı yaptık. Öğretmen ve öğrencilerden oluşan 230 kişilik örneklem grubuna uygulanan 39 soruluk anketle lise düzeyi ve üzerindeki terör algısını belirlemeyi hedefledik. Sorularımız terörün dini, ekonomik, siyasal, sosyal ve eğitim ile ilişkisi  sorgulayacak şekilde hazırlanmıştır. Örneklem grubu  terörün siyasi, ekonomik, etnik, dini, eğitime bağlı nedenlerinin olduğu konusunda hemfikirdir. Bazı etkenler yaş grubuna ve cinsiyete göre farklı yorumlanmıştır. Anket sonuçları, Farklı gruplara göre karşılaştırılmalı olarak pasta grafik ile bulgular bölümünde ve çubuk grafikler ile ekler bölümünde sunulmuştur. Sonuç olarak; terörün dış kaynaklı olduğu, iyi işleyen bir demokrasinin terörü azaltacağı, basın yayın kuruluşlarının doğru bilgi aktarmadığı, dünya barışı diye bir olgunun gerçekleşmeyeceğine dair inancın olmadığı algısı dikkat çekmiştir. Ayrıca terörün dini, siyasal, etnik, ekonomik ve eğitim ile ilişkisinde hepsinin terörü durdurmak için bir etken olduğu ancak eğitim seviyesinin arttırılmasıyla terör arsındaki ilişkinin  daha fazla olduğu algısı ön plana çıkmıştır.

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I giovani e il mondo del lavoro

Ciao a tutt*! Mi chiamo Elisabetta Svolacchia e studio Scienze politiche per la Cooperazione e lo Sviluppo all’ università degli Studi di Roma Tre. Con la mia ricerca ho deciso di approfondire il rapporto dei giovani e il mondo del lavoro, ponendomi quattro interrogativi: esiste un divario tra i desideri lavorativi dei giovani e l’ effettiva possibilità di realizzarli? Quali sono gli strumenti che vengono usati oggi nella ricerca del lavoro? Il lavoro sta subendo una progressiva democratizzazione o le barriere socio-economiche sono ancora influenti? I giovani sono consapevoli degli effetti della crisi sul mondo del lavoro? Se anche voi vi siete posti i miei stessi interrogativi o se siete curiosi di vedere le risposte che ho ottenuto, potete leggere la mia ricerca!

Elisabetta 

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Giovani, identità e politica: una storia alternativa

Il nostro progetto è nato dalla necessità di capire il rapporto tra giovani e politica, a partire dalla rappresentazione di noi giovani come “bamboccioni”, disinteressati alla politica e svogliati, prodotta e diffusa dagli stessi politici e dai media. Se in questa prospettiva il rapporto tra giovani e politica sembra essere in crisi e quasi in via d’estinzione, dal punto di vista che abbiamo voluto adottare noi, sembra invece essersi soltanto trasformato: sono forse le forme di partecipazione tradizionali, legate ai partiti politici, ad essere in crisi? Da questa domanda è partita la nostra ricerca, che abbiamo voluto sviluppare ascoltando in primo luogo le voci dei giovani attraverso delle interviste strutturate. Le dimensioni indagate riguardano l’identità generazionale, la definizione del concetto di politica, l’autodefinizione del rapporto con la politica, le forme di partecipazione utilizzate. La prima dimensione, l’identità generazionale, è risultata essere la chiave di lettura vincente per capire le traformazioni in atto del rapporto giovani-politica; infatti, abbiamo visto quanto i giovani si sentano “scollati” dalla propria generazione e quanto la mancanza di un’identità comune, quindi di un’idea comune di politica, sia determinante nella scelta delle forme di partecipazione da adottare. A tal proposito abbiamo voluto indagare anche la realtà di Scomodo, un progetto nato a Roma completamente gestito da govani che vuole restituire voce e spazio a una generazione abbandonata, proprio come molti luoghi della città. 

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Guerra y evolución

Autores: Sergio Sierra Bernal, Cristina Viera Sánchez
Este producto narra, en forma de “Draw my life”, las relaciones entre tres conflictos bélicos de los últimos 100 años, al objeto de establecer las relaciones entre ellos
Objectives: 
Analizar las causas de los conflictos del siglo XX y relacionarlos con los actuales del siglo XXI

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El terrorismo de ETA

Autores: Mario Dueñas Carbayeda, Alejandro Marcos Campillo, Álvaro Píriz Sendín 
Este proyecto consiste en una web ficticia creada para explicar la historia del grupo terrorista vasco ETA, para comprender, con la perspectiva que da el tiempo, cuáles fueron las motivaciones de su existencia.
Objectives: 
Reflexionar sobre el significado del grupo terrorista ETA en la construcción de la identidad vasca y los conflictos nacionalistas en España

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La Declaración unilateral de independencia de Cataluña. Historia de un nacionalismo

Autores: Daniel Gutiérrez García, Guillermo Sánchez Hernández
Trabajo de investigación sobre el proceso que ha llevado a la Declaración unilateral de independencia de Cataluña
Objectives: 
Reflexionar sobre las causas de la declaración unilateral de independencia de Cataluña

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Un solo planeta

Autores: Christian Castañeda Noguera, Jordi Resende Moura
Este cortometraje muestra algunos de los problemas fundamentales de nuestro planeta como consecuencia de la sobreexplotación, las guerras, la globalización, etc.
Objectives: 
Reflexionar sobre los problemas fundamentales que afectan a nuestro planeta

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Yihadismo

Autores: Miguel Ángel Honrubia Barbero, Sergio Pérez Morocho, Francisco Álvaro Salort Sánchez
Esta presentación aborda el problema de una forma de fanatismo religioso violento, el yihadismo, y su relación con el contexto global actual
Objectives: 
Analizar el fenómeno del fanatismo religioso, y concretamente del yihadismo, en relación con el contexto global actual

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